The Story of Andrew Schrock (1804-1855) and his son, Andrew (1842-1925)
by Donna Schrock Birkey
Originally published in the Summer 2011 (Vol. XXXVIII • No. 2)
Illinois Mennonite Heritage Quarterly (http://www.imhgs.org)
(Used with permission of original publisher)
This article, fourth in a series on descendants of Joseph and Maria Neuhauser Schrag (Schrack), highlights new information and expands on the dramatic reading presented by Debbie Birkey at the Illinois Mennonite Heritage Center’s Schrock Immigrant Day, June 18-20, 2010.
Andrew (André, Andreas) has been a recurring name given to Schrag males. The name shows up numerous times in my database beginning 1629, but in this direct Schrock line, our two main subjects are the first. One, adventurous enough to cross the ocean to a new land, marry and have a family, purchase acreage, conquer the prairie, and build a substantial landmark “fine brick house.” The second lost his father at age 13, was perhaps despondent about life, a loner and wanderer, and at times inconsistent and irresponsible. Many questions have remained about his later life and his death. Both Andrews came to a sad and dramatic end, but in totally different circumstances.
Andrew (1804 – 1855) (André/Andreas)
“Mayor’s office in Gondrexange, arrondissement of Sarrebourg, 14 Messidor XII of the French Republic [July 3, 1804], birth certificate of André Schrack, born the same day, about 8 a.m., son of Joseph Schrack, miller, and Marie Neyehouser, living at the said Gondrexange. The sex of the infant has been recognized to be male. The baby has been presented to me by the witnesses, Antoine Honquet, 36, mason, and Hubert Barthelemy, 40, school teacher, both living in the said Gondrexange. And following the declaration made to me by Joseph Schrack, father of the child, they have signed [the document]. Prepared according to law by me, Joseph Thiébeau, mayor of the community [commune] of Gondrexange, serving as public official for recording vital statistics of citizens [l’état civil].” 1
About 30 years after his birth, Andrew was in America when his first child was born in 1835. We know Andrew was living near his two brothers in Dompcevrin, Meuse, in 1828 when he served as witness to the birth of brother Peter’s first child. Even though several descendants give his emigration date as either 1830 or 1831 and report he came with family, Andrew’s name is not on the Baltimore ship list as traveling in 1831 with his brothers Johannes and Peter, and sister Magdalena. His name has yet to be found on a ship list.
Sometime before 1835 and probably after arriving in America Andrew married Anna Oyer, daughter of Jacob Oyer (ca 1778 – 1885) and Suzanne Shertz (ca 1780 – 1829). Anna was born in Niderhof, Lorraine, France, and arrived with her parents in New Orleans on the ship Superior, December 4, 1830, after 53 days on the ocean. The Amish passengers, including the Oyer family, traveled on to Cincinnati, Ohio, arriving Christmas Day. Andrew and Anna’s first three living children were born in Butler County, Ohio. The family was in Illinois in 1842 for the birth of Andrew’s namesake.
Illinois Land Purchases
Andrew may have first purchased land in Livingston County next to Waldo Cemetery2, before settling in Tazewell County, Washington Township, about four miles west of Washington near today’s Sunnyland. However, on April 11, 1839, Andrew made his first purchase of land in Tazewell County—168 acres from Benjamin Rediger in the northwest corner of Section 18, Township 26N.3 The purchase price was $1000.
It seems the Minch family was selling off their land holdings in the spring of 1850. Adam Minch sold 40 acres to Andrew for $600; John Minch was paid $500 for 40 acres, excepting a small tract of land deeded to the Lutheran Church by George Minch. Later Adam’s wife Mary Ann sold Andrew another 80 acres for $100.
The Schrock family is named in the 1850 Federal Census: Andrew Schrock, age 45, born Germany, farmer, $2000 [of real estate]; Ann, age 35, b. Germany; Joseph 15, b. OH; Susan 13, b. OH; Anna 10, b. OH; Andrew 7, b. IL; Mary 5, b. IL; Peter 1, b. IL.
Twenty years later in early 1870, two children (Joseph and wife Mary Risser, Anna and husband Ludwig “Louis” Stalter) sold 240 acres to their mother Anna for $3200. Since both couples moved away from Tazewell County soon thereafter, they no doubt needed cash rather than the land they had inherited when Andrew died.
The 1873 atlas shows the owner of Andrew’s property to be A. Schrock—no doubt Anna, as head of family. Land deeds found4 show Andrew had purchased a total of 328 acres in Section 18, with the house towards the middle of the acreage. There was an orchard south of the house, a timber to the east, and a stream to the north. Water and wood close by—necessities for a pioneer. But they had to drive or walk approximately ten miles to take a ferry to Peoria, the nearest larger town.
In 1877, all of the Schrock siblings agreed to sell 170 acres to David D. Augsburger for $1250. David was the husband of Magdalena, Andrew and Anna’s youngest child.5 On November 12, 1890, Peter divested his 120 acres to Louis and Katharina Reim and realized $5900.6 Two years later David Augsburger and his wife Magdalena sold 120 acres to William Keil for $8400. In 1893, parts of Andrew’s original acreage were owned by Louis Reim and D. D. Augspurger.7 Son Andrew was not named in any land transaction found, nor did the documents give a clue to the date of Anna’s death.
Perhaps it was after the 1890 sale that Peter and his wife pulled up stakes in Illinois and moved to Hamilton County, Nebraska, where all their children were married. Eventually they moved to California where both died.
Andrew’s oldest son Joseph married Elizabeth Rediger three years following his father’s death. Before long the family moved west to Kansas, then settled in California where most of his descendants live. According to Donald Roth, a Rediger researcher, Joseph fathered 17 children.8
Andrew began building a large brick home on his property before his death. It is told that his young children, Andrew and Mary, carried all the bricks for this home [from the banks of the stream on the property?]. One of the children in later years finished the house using the original plans that called for half of the second story to be used for church services.9
Two Schrock families were torn apart by the cholera epidemic that invaded Illinois in 1855.
“…all four [died] of cholera in a short space of time, from Wednesday afternoon when Grandpa [died]. [He] contracted it in Bloomington the day before. There was a funeral for him on Thurs. – the rest all well yet, but by Sat. night Grandmother went at 12 o’clock and Barbara a half hour later and John, 6 yrs. old Monday morning at 3 o’clock. No funeral held for them. The rest all sick with cholera. Those who took sick at Grandpa’s funeral were Andrew Schrock, Grandma’s brother and Mrs. Ulrich. …This is the way my father [Peter Smith] gave it more than once and said how sad it was for them.”10
If we follow the chronology of this Oyer account, Andrew’s sister Magdalena’s family was stricken with cholera the first day of August 1855. Husband Christian Smith contracted it first, according to family tradition, after a trip to Bloomington. He died the next day, a Wednesday, and was buried on Thursday. Two days later (Saturday) Magdalena died. The following day Andrew, who had evidently become sick at Christian’s funeral and then stayed with his ailing sister on Friday, died on Sunday the 5th of August.
The Smith family is no doubt buried in Slabtown Cemetery located near Congerville where the Smith’s lived. It is sometimes called Cholera Cemetery, but there are no Smith stones. Andrew, however, is buried near his farm in Guth Cemetery.
About six months after Andrew’s death, Anna signed away her right to administer her husband’s estate to Peter Guth (Good), but remains as guarding of the heirs. In his position as administrator, Peter’s opinion is that personal goods and chattels are valued at $275. A listing of personal property totals $1839, less the widow’s allowance of $691.50, equaling $1147.50.
One of the sale bills included in the probate file shows 9000 shingles sold to Lewis Tobias and Adam Keil for $858. A second bill was to Peter Guth for unnamed items, totaling $584.60.
During the personal property sale on March 15, 1856, items were sold to John Spring, Nicholas Roth, Joseph Onsecker (Unzicker), and Joseph Schick among others. Nicholas Roth served as one of the appraisers.
At the time of Andrew’s death Peter Guth owned the land on which the cemetery is located. It was a Guth family burying ground. Peter and his wife Susanna are buried there. Andrew’s wife, Anna, and Peter’s wife, Susanna, were sisters, and that family connection resulted in Andrew’s burial there. In 1873 the land on which the cemetery was located was owned by J. Oyer. This would have no doubt been Anna and Susanna’s father, Jacob Oyer, who died in 1885. In 1891 Christ Guth owned the land around the cemetery—most likely Christian, son of Peter and Susanna. Today, instead of being a small plot in a corner of Guth farmland, the cemetery is a fenced off area beside a busy road, surrounded by the commercial properties of Sunnyland Plaza.
Andrew (1842 – 1925) (Andy)
Andrew was the first of his parents’ children to be born in Illinois, on December 9, 1842. He grew up next to neighbors, Joseph Schick (1818 – 1898) and Magdalene Augspurger (1823 – 1893), who had a sizable farm and enough money to easily care for their large family of ten children. The father had served as a Pershing Army officer, was quite wealthy and loved his wine. He married his wife in Butler County, Ohio.
One of the Schick daughters, Magdalene, was a few years younger than Andrew and his sister Mary, and surely spent many hours playing with the two Schrock children by the stream that ran nearby. Perhaps she even helped the children carry the bricks for the house being built for the Schrock family before father Andrew died of cholera. Historical records indicate the Schick family worshiped with other Amish Mennonite families in the house after it was completed.11
Marriage and Westward Movement
Time passed and the children grew to adulthood. Eleven years after father Andrew died, Andrew and Magdalene were married in 1866. They were soon blessed with first child Magdalena, and with her in tow in 1868 they moved to Lamar, Barton Co., Missouri. Lamar was about 50 miles south of Cass County where an Amish Mennonite community had just developed; however, there is nothing to indicate the Schrock family had connections there. In two years little Elizabeth, “Lizzie” as she was called, joined the family. But trouble was brewing. As it turned out, Andrew wasn’t a very responsible husband and father. He came and went as he pleased and didn’t provide well for the family. There were some very lean years. With Andrew gone so much of the time, another child didn’t arrive until seven years later, when the first son Samuel was born; then Edward, and finally ten years later, Andrew, namesake of his father and grandfather.
The family could not continue living with constant uncertainty, not knowing where money for food and clothing would come from. During 1888 the two girls were married to men from Nebraska—Edward King and William Unzicker—and so Magdalene decided to move with the children to Nebraska the next year. The girls and Magdalene rode in the passenger section of an immigrant train and the men rode in the baggage car. Andrew remained behind in Missouri where he worked as a blacksmith.
After the move Magdalene and the children seldom saw or heard from Andrew. He would occasionally visit them in Nebraska. At the end of one of those visits during the early 1920s the family told Andrew goodbye, he walked off down the road never to be heard from again. Magdalene’s playmate and husband had in reality abandoned his family years earlier, but it must have been painful to finally realize Andrew was never coming back.
Andrew the Wanderer. Finally some Answers!
Where was Andrew in the years after his family left him in Missouri? What sort of life did he lead? So far there are no clues for the decades of 1890 and 1900. But 1910 finds him in Nebraska.
The 1910 Federal Census lists Andrew Schrock, age 67 living in Medicine, Lincoln County, Nebraska; he was head of household and a farmer. Andrew had a farm free and clear, indicating he was able to earn enough money to acquire an asset. He told the census taker his father and mother were born in France and he was born in Illinois. Ten years later, in the 1920 Federal Census under the name Andy Schrock, he appears in Linn County, Paris Township, Kansas; 77 years old, head of household, widowed, and a farmer who [a second time] owns his farm.
Andy’s age, birthplace, and parents’ birthplace match known information for Andrew in both of these census entries. The fact that he is “widowed” sheds light on thoughts and feelings about his family—he seems to have “burned his bridges.” Andrew never shows up in a later census.
At age 77 Andrew is no longer a young man, but family acquaintances reported he had gone to Portland, Oregon, in 1924. His family advertised for him in the Northwest but received no response. In my first draft of this article the next sentence was, “What happened there we may never know.” However, that statement is no longer valid!
During the first week of June I was browsing the Find a Grave website for an unrelated person and on a whim searched the Schrock surname. A long list of names appeared that I began looking through. When I arrived at name number 47 I did a double take. The name—Andy Schrock! The place—Sacramento, California—close enough to Portland, Oregon, to make me cautiously optimistic and a bit excited.
I clicked on the Odd Fellows Cemetery link shown beside the name and called the phone number shown. I was told they had been given minimal information about the names of some persons buried in the historic Sacramento City Cemetery12 and decided to put them on line along with their own burials. I would need to call someone within the Sacramento County offices to find out if this Andy Schrock was who I thought he might be.
After quite a few phone calls I arrived at the Public Information Office of the County and a very helpful person emailed me a list of possible contacts. After two more calls I hit pay dirt! The very helpful City Cemetery archives volunteers filled in the rest of the story: the record showed that Andy Schrock of Illinois died February 7, 1925 in Sacramento County Hospital at 82 years of age of pulmonary tuberculosis. He was indigent/destitute, a transient with no home. Andy was buried in Sec. 5-B SSW Potters Field, Tier 1, Gr. 156, along with many others like him, and without a stone.
But then I was curious about the Potters Field burial site. Several days later I again contacted City Cemetery archives office asking if they could identify where on their map Potters Field might be. Their answer sent me back to Odd Fellows Cemetery,13 for I was told that Potters Field is actually there rather than in City Cemetery. Another call to Odd Fellows Cemetery finally answered all the questions. I was pointed to the area on the map of their cemetery called Potters Field, and Google Maps revealed the cemetery that you will see included at the end of this article.
My research continued in the main Sacramento newspaper to see if there might be an article revealing the details of how Andy entered the hospital. When the microfilm for February 1925 arrived I spent several hours looking through the pages of the Sacramento Bee, but was unable to find any further information. However, Andy’s descendants can finally put to rest their questions about his death, even if not every detail is known.
Andrew II’s Son Samuel
Andrew and Magdalene’s son Samuel was born in Lamar, Missouri, and hometown of President Harry S. Truman. He was given the middle name Truman for Harry’s father, John Anderson Truman. After moving to Holdrege, Nebraska at age 13 with his mother and siblings and then living on the farm in a sod house six miles north of town, Sam learned to love and master all aspects of farming. As a family they worked hard and knew how to make the most of what they had. In the first year they broke 15 acres of sod. Sam showed his mettle that first winter when there was no money to buy fuel. He took his two brothers and with their two little white mules gathered 15 wagon loads of buffalo chips and corn stalks in order for the family to survive the cold winter with a little bit of comfort. Sam was the very opposite of his father.
Samuel’s mother sent him to a sod schoolhouse two months in the spring and two months in the fall. Every morning he left home carrying his own chair, walking one mile in rain, snow, sleet, hail, blizzard, or Nebraska heat, to sit around a long wooden table in the center of the [school] room.
Sam always referred to his mother as “my poor widowed mother” and would often cry when he mentioned her. She was not actually widowed but instead left her husband in Missouri and came to Phelps County with her five children by Immigrant Train. Her husband stayed in Missouri, worked as a blacksmith, visited Nebraska, but never lived here. While here, he used to sit in Sam’s gas station, barefooted, much to his son’s irritation.14
“He [Sam] was one of the pioneer farmers of Holdrege and farming captured him the rest of his 98 years. In the Phelps County Courthouse cornerstone is “one perfect corn ear raised by Sam Schrock in 1910!”15
While Sam put down deep roots in Holdredge, his brother Ed went to live in Burley, Idaho. Next he tried farming in Colorado but lost his farm in the Depression. He tried to get some help from his brother Sam to pay taxes to keep from losing his land, but the $500 needed was not forthcoming and he lost 1000 acres. Ed struggled financially for the remainder of his life.16
“Sam’s two older sisters were big, strong, healthy women who lived in a dugout in Phelps County and later moved away from the area. Lizzie moved to Wyoming and Lena [after the death of her husband, William Unzicker] moved to Chappell, Nebraska. They farmed and raised their children by themselves.”17 Elizabeth “Lizzie” was married to Edward King in the famous brick house west of Washington,18 but at some point the couple divorced. One relative remembered that Lizzie loved men and had a house on the edge of Holdrege, possibly a house of “ill repute.”19 She later lived on a 1280-acre ranch twenty miles north of Cheyenne, Wyoming, managing a large herd of cattle.
“In 1903 Samuel married Helen Sauer, and they bought a 1000-acre farm near Holdrege. Sam used his good business sense again and again. He bought a grinder and mixed his own feed using a scoop of corn, a scoop of cobs and a bundle of atlas sorgo. Using this method his cattle feeding program continued to show a profit. The Great Depression didn’t seem to have a great effect on him.
“After moving to town by no means did Sam slow down. He built one of the first service stations, and the first locker plant for Holdrege. He used parolees from the penitentiary for farm labor, and the results were successful. Sam was good to them and one stayed on with him for five years. Sam was a ‘go getter’, thrifty, and seemed to know how to make things turn a profit. He thought about retiring, but he couldn’t just sit around, so he bought an old hotel in Ragan and one in Atlanta and used the lumber to build a large building in Holdrege, The Schrock Building, for many businesses.
“Sam was a true entrepreneur. He bought the ice plant and delivered ice to the railroad so travelers would buy his ice. He built an IGA grocery store, and during WWII when housing was short, he remodeled many old houses and apartments. Then, when in his 60s and 70s, he went back to farming. One of his sons said, “When Dad moved to town, he quit raising pigs and raised little girls, but it doesn’t seem that Sam ever stopped farming a day in his [98-year] life.’”20
Sam’s daughter, Violet, had some negative memories of her “controlling” father, but she said she never heard her parents quarrel, argue or fight. She remembers the huge house her father built in Holdrege where she was later married, and that house was later described in the Holdrege Daily Citizen as, “the house that Sam Schrock built in 1926, now a Bed and Breakfast.”
Son Sammy had very distinct impressions of his father, Samuel, Sr., “He was ornery and self-centered.” One of his earliest memories was riding to town with his father in the 1914 Republic truck around 1920. His feet couldn’t touch the floor. Sammy thinks the truck was actually a 1916 model but his father wanted it to coincide with the year of his son’s birth—he wasn’t above stretching the truth to fit his pleasure! He was flamboyant and larger than life. Sam, Sr. had a love for music and passed this love on to several in his family.
Sam Sr.’s children remember some of his quotes: “Style and education ruin the country;” “I can talk myself into trouble and I can talk myself out of trouble,” (his wife, Helen, on the other hand used to say, “Silence is golden,” and be embarrassed at what her husband said); “Hello, I’m Sam Johnson.” (Everyone knew who he was—this was just part of his personality. Sam was a Democrat and of German descent, but he managed to live comfortably in Phelps County with its preponderance of Swedes and Republicans.)21
The “ranch” (the land 12 miles north of Holdrege) was always important to the family, but Samuel wouldn’t sell the property to his son and namesake. He was ready to sell to another party but his wife Helen stuck up for her family and wouldn’t sign the papers. About 20 years later Sam Jr. and his sisters approached their 94-year-old Papa and were able to buy it—at more than market value! About this same time Sam’s children (Sammy was appointed conservator) had to take over his affairs, and Sam was furious at this loss of control and never really forgave his children for doing this. Sammy once commented, “Papa used to brag about me to other people, but he never complemented me to my face.” This caused Sammy to change his behavior with his own children. He put his sons in charge of the farming at an early age in order to teach them independence.
The life of immigrant Andrew ended dramatically during the prime of his life. He acquired a good amount of acreage, a productive farm, reared seven living children and had a good wife. He planned for and was building a fine brick home for his family that included a large room on the second floor where church services could be held on Sundays. As it turned out, Andrew did not realize his dream. Instead, a deadly outbreak of cholera snuffed out his life and left his family without father and husband.
However, as often happened in Amish Mennonite communities, relatives put themselves and their resources on the line and made sure Anna and her children were cared for. A Tazewell County document exists for the $10,000 guardianship bond for Andrew’s children, dated August 10, 1857:
“Know all Men by these Presents, That we Anna Schrock, Peter Guth, Johannes Schrock and Joseph Schrock…for the use of Anna Schrock, Andrew Schrock, Mary Schrock, Peter Schrock and Madaline Schrock, minor heirs of Andrew Schrock, late of said County, deceased….”
The document contains the signatures of Peter Guth and Johannes Schrock (Anna’s brothers-in-law), Joseph Schrock, her nephew; and the mark of Anna Oyer Schrock.
Five years after her husband’s death the 1860 Federal Census reveals that Anna was carrying on successfully as a widow. She is listed as head of household, 45 years old, a farmer with real and personal property totaling $7000. Born in France. Children listed as Susan 23; Ann 20; Andrew 17; Mary 13; Peter 11; Magdaline 4. Counted with the family is Lewis List, farmer, age 21. No doubt Lewis was a hired hand helping with the farm work. Anna’s real and personal property totaled much more than her neighbors’, and $5000 more than the family reported in the 1850 census.
Father Andrew’s legacy was his loyalty within the Amish community of Lorraine, France, and his determination to make a better physical life in a New World where there was also the opportunity to worship God unhindered, and serve his fellow believers at whatever cost. He knew the value of hard work—a value expressed in the lives of several of his children and grandchildren, but unfortunately not so much in the life of his namesake. He was a visionary in his own environment, but didn’t live to see that vision completed.
On the other hand, son Andrew’s life and death leave mostly conjecture.
Did he lead a life void of happiness? It seems he did not miss his family or wish to reconnect, but was a loner all his life, without a community of support. The two census records from Nebraska and Kansas indicate that Andrew may have in his later years settled down sufficiently to earn enough money to own his farms, but they also show he continued to move from place to place. One wonders if Andrew had any connection to a faith community. Perhaps at some point Andrew remembered the “faith of his fathers” and made it his own. His legacy was not positive, in that his children were determined not to follow in their father’s footsteps, but rather live their lives as their immigrant grandfather had. Andrew was known to have said, “When I feel I can no longer be of use on this earth, I’ll jump in the river.” Perhaps losing his father at such an early age affected him more than his family realized, for he was never able to meet the challenges of providing for and loving a family. His oldest son Sam always believed Andrew drowned himself in the Columbia River. Now we know that didn’t happen, but what did was just as heart rending.
Sam and Sharon Schrock of near Holdrege, Nebraska, were unable to attend Schrock Immigrant Day in June 2010—they had crucial irrigation work at that time. Instead, they spent a day in Illinois during a longer trip in August. I had the privilege of taking them to visit many of the Schrock family sites. Of special interest to Sam was the gravesite of his ancestor, Andreas Schrack, in Guth Cemetery. He mused, “I never thought I would ever be able to see my great-great-great grandfather’s grave.” – DB
1 Neil Ann Stuckey Levine was kind enough to translate for me the birth document of André Schrack. She made further comments: There is no signature or mark of Joseph Schrack at the end of the document—at least not on the scan I received—and yet the man is not described as having been unable to write. And the fact that the father had to tap non-relatives to witness this birth indicates, as so often, that he and his family may have been perhaps the only fellow believers in town at the time. [Joseph Schrack did,however, sign birth documents of other children. db]
2 Donald Kaufmann’s Stalter information says the land next to Waldo Cemetery in Livingston County is farmland once owned by Anna’s family. Anna married Ludwig (Louis) Stalter.
3 The deed reads: Benjn Rutiger to Andrew Chrag. Years later in August 1915 in an affidavit filed in Hamilton County, Nebraska, Peter Schrock affirmed that Andrew Chrag was indeed his father Andrew Schrock. The error in the last name, he said, “was probably made by the draftsman of the said old deed, who evidently was not familiar with the correct spelling of declarant’s father’s family name.”
4 Carol Dorward, Collections Manager/Archivist for the Washington Historical Society, was instrumental in finding and sending relevant land deeds at the Tazewell County Court House in Pekin for my research.
5 David D. Augspurger was an ordained minister. According to Schertz Family Descendants: http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/b/e/m/Dennis-G-BeMent/GENE17-0004.html, David established a church in Goodland, Indiana, then conducted mission work in the Chicago area, and later established a church at Bethel, east of Pekin.
6 E-mail from Carol Dorward, Washington Historical Society, 25 May 2011. Louis and Katharina Rein, in turn, sold the property for $7000 to John Wenger on 1 December 1903.
7 The acres bought and sold as seen in the land records do not match. However, there may still be transactions that took place that have not been found.
8 Descendants of Johannes Rediger. Received from Donald W. Roth September 2005.
9 “Also, there is still a house standing which in the second story had a large room built for the purpose of serving as a Mennonite Church meeting place. Families attending there were Schrock, Augsburger, Schick and Guth. Other early names were Muench, now Minch, and Riech, now Rich. Few of these names remain, their descendants have gone on to business or professions or to engage in farming in other parts of the country.” History of Washington, Illinois, Sesquicentennial, 1825-1975, page 16.
10 Mary Smith Oyer’s account of her grandparents’ death: Magdalena Schrock (1811 – 1855) and Christian Smith (1810 – 1855).
11 Ibid. History of Washington, Illinois, Sesquicentennial, 1825-1975.
12 Much information can be found on line about this historic cemetery, begun in 1850 on land donated by John Sutter who laid out the city plan for Sacramento—a son of John A. Sutter of Sutter’s Fort—famous for its role during the California Gold Rush.
14 Schrock Farms 1908-2008, compiled by Sharon Schrock and Nancy Morse.
15 Adapted from information given in the book, Schrock Farms 1908-2008.
16 Raymond C. Schrock e-mail, 2008.
17 Ibid. Schrock Farms
18 Johannes Schrock: His Children and Grandchildren. Unpublished manuscript by Willard Smith.
19Ibid. Schrock Farms.